As a data scientist, I feel that Nim has tremendous potential for data science, machine learning and deep learning.
For the past 3 months I've been working on Arraymancer, a tensor library that currently provides a subset of Numpy functionality in a fast and ergonomic library. It features:
- Creating tensors from nested sequences and arrays (even 10 level of nesting)
- Pretty printing of up to 4D tensors (would need help to generalize)
- Slicing with Nim syntax
- Slices can be mutated
- Reshaping, broadcasting, concatenating tensors. Also permuting their dimensions.
- Universal functions
- Accelerated matrix and vector operations using BLAS
- Iterators (on values, coordinates, axis)
- Aggregate and statistics (sum, mean, and a generic aggregate higher order function)
Next steps (in no particular order) include:
- adding CUDA support using andrea's nimcuda package
- adding Neural Network / Deep Learning functions
- Improving the documentation and adding the library on Nimble
The library: https://github.com/mratsim/Arraymancer
I welcome your feedback or expected use case. I especially would love to know the pain points people have with deep learning and putting deep learning models in production.
I've been following this for a while on GitHub and I think it is a very impressive project. Nim would be a great language for scientific computing, but it needs to have the numerical libraries and this is an excellent first step in creating them.
A couple of questions. First, are you planning to add neural network functionality directly to Arraymancer? Surely that would be something better suited for a separate, specialised library? A second, more general, question I have is whether you'd consider making the get_data_ptr proc public. It would be nice to be able to integrate your tensors with wrappers for existing numerical software written in C and we'd need access to the raw data for that.
get_data_ptr is now public .
For now, I will add the neural network functionality directly in Arraymancer.
The directory structure will probably be:
- src/arraymancer ==> core Tensor stuff
- src/autograd ==> automatic gradient computation (i.e. Nim-rmad ported to tensors)
- src/neuralnet ==> neural net layers
This mirrors PyTorch's tree
I made this choice for the following reasons:
- It's easier for me to keep track of one repo, refactor code, document and test.
- I'm focusing on deep learning
- It's much easier to communicate about one single package (and attracts new people to Nim ).
- Data scientists are used to have deep learning in a single package (tensor + neural net interface): Tensorflow, Torch/PyTorch, Nervana Neon, MxNet ...
- Nim's DeadCodeElim will ensure that unused code will not be compiled.
If the tensor part (without the NN) get even 0.1% of Numpy popularity and people start using it in several packages that means:
- It's a rich man problem!
- We get new devs and input for scientific/numerical Nim.
- We can reconsider splitting as we will know actual expectations.
- We can even build a "scinim" community which drives all key scientific nim packages.
In the mean time I think it's best if I do what is easier for me and worry about how to scale later.
A late reply because I was hoping to dive into this a bit deeper before replying. But due to lack of time, a high-level feedback must suffice: This looks awesome!
I completely agree with your observation that there is a gap between developing prototypes e.g. in Python and bringing them into production -- not only in deep learning, but data science in general. And I also think that Nim's feature set would be perfect to fill this gap.
A quick question on using statically-typed tensors: I assume that this implies that the topolgy of a network cannot be dynamic at all? I'm wondering if there are good work-arounds to situations where dynamic network topologies are required, for instance when a model wants to choose its number of hidden layer nodes iteratively, picking the best model variant. Are dynamically typed tensors an option or would that defeat the design / performance?
The only static parts of the Tensor types are the Backend (Cpu, CUDA, ...) and the internal type (int32, float32, object ...).
The network topology will be dynamic and using dynamic graphs more akin to PyTorch/Chainer/DyNet than Theano/Tensorflow/Keras.
My next step is to build an autograd so people only need to implement the forward pass, backpropagation will be automatic. For this part I'm waiting for VTable.
PS: I think NimData is great too, Pandas seems like a much harder beast!
I am very excited to announce the second release of Arraymancer which includes numerous improvements blablabla ...
Without further ado:
- There is a Gitter room!
- shallowCopy is now unsafeView and accepts let arguments
- Element-wise multiplication is now .* instead of |*|
- vector dot product is now dot instead of .*
- All tensor initialization proc have their Backend parameter deprecated.
- fmap is now map
- agg and agg_in_place are now fold and nothing (too bad!)
- Initial support for Cuda !!!
- All linear algebra operations are supported
- Slicing (read-only) is supported
- Transforming a slice to a new contiguous Tensor is supported
- Introduction of unsafe operations that works without copy: unsafeTranspose, unsafeReshape, unsafebroadcast, unsafeBroadcast2, unsafeContiguous
- Implicit broadcasting via .+, .*, ./, .- and their in-place equivalent .+=, .-=, .*=, ./=
- Several shapeshifting operations: squeeze, at and their unsafe version.
- New property: size
- Exporting: export_tensor and toRawSeq
- reduce and reduce on axis
- I express my deep thanks to @edubart for testing Arraymancer, contributing new functions, and improving its overall performance. He built arraymancer-demos and arraymancer-vision, check
those out you can load images in Tensor and do logistic regression on those!
Also thanks to the Nim communauty on IRC/Gitter, they are a tremendous help (yes Varriount, Yardanico, Zachary, Krux).
I probably would have struggled a lot more without the guidance of Andrea's code for Cuda in his neo and nimcuda library.
And obviously Araq and Dom for Nim which is an amazing language for performance, productivity, safety and metaprogramming.
Arraymancer v0.3.0 Dec. 14 2017
Finally after much struggles, here is Arraymancer new version. Available now on Nimble. It comes with a new shiny doc (thanks @flyx and NimYAML doc): https://mratsim.github.io/Arraymancer
- Very Breaking
- Tensors uses reference semantics now: let a = b will share data by default and copies must be made explicitly.
- There is no need to use unsafe proc to avoid copies especially for slices.
- Unsafe procs are deprecated and will be removed leading to a smaller and simpler codebase and API/documentation.
- Tensors and CudaTensors now works the same way.
- Use clone to do copies.
- Arraymancer now works like Numpy and Julia, making it easier to port code.
- Unfortunately it makes it harder to debug unexpected data sharing.
- Breaking (?)
- The max number of dimensions supported has been reduced from 8 to 7 to reduce cache misses. Note, in deep learning the max number of dimensions needed is 6 for 3D videos: [batch, time, color/feature channels, Depth, Height, Width]
- Documentation has been completely revamped and is available here: https://mratsim.github.io/Arraymancer/
- Huge performance improvements
- Use non-initialized seq
- shape and strides are now stored on the stack
- optimization via inlining all higher-order functions
- apply_inline, map_inline, fold_inline and reduce_inline templates are available.
- all higher order functions are parallelized through OpenMP
- integer matrix multiplication uses SIMD, loop unrolling, restrict and 64-bit alignment
- prevent false sharing/cache contention in OpenMP reduction
- remove temporary copies in several proc
- runtime checks/exception are now behind unlikely
- A*B + C and C+=A*B are automatically fused in one operation
- do not initialize result tensors
- Neural network:
- Added linear, sigmoid_cross_entropy,
- softmax_cross_entropy layers
- Added Convolution layer
- Added unsqueeze and stack
- Added min, max, abs, reciprocal, negate and in-place mnegate and mreciprocal
- Added variance and standard deviation
- Added .^ (broadcasted exponentiation)
- Support for convolution primitives: forward and backward
- Broadcasting ported to Cuda
- Added perceptron learning xor function example
- Arraymancer uses ln1p (ln(1 + x)) and exp1m procs (exp(1 - x)) where appropriate to avoid catastrophic cancellation
- Version 0.3.1 with the ALL deprecated proc removed will be released in a week. Due to issue https://github.com/nim-lang/Nim/issues/6436, even using non-deprecated proc like zeros, ones, newTensor you will get a deprecated warning.
- newTensor, zeros, ones arguments have been changed from zeros([5, 5], int) to zeros[int]([5, 5])
- All unsafe proc are now default and deprecated.
- OpenCL tensors are now available! However Arraymancer will naively select the first backend available. It can be CPU, it can be GPU. They support basic and broadcasted operations (Addition, matrix multiplication, elementwise multiplication, ...)
- Addition of an argmax and argmax_max procs.
- Loading the MNIST dataset from http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/
- Reading and writing from CSV
- Linear algebra:
- Least squares solver
- Eigenvalues and eigenvectors decomposition for symmetric matrices
- Machine Learning
- Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
- Computation of covariance matrices
- Neural network
- Introduction of a short intuitive syntax to build neural networks! (A blend of Keras and PyTorch).
- Maxpool2D layer
- Mean Squared Error loss
- Tanh and softmax activation functions
- Examples and tutorials
- Digit recognition using Convolutional Neural Net
- Teaching Fizzbuzz to a neural network
- Plotting tensors through Python
Several updates linked to Nim rapid development and several bugfixes.
- Bluenote10 for the CSV writing proc and the tensor plotting tool
- Miran for benchmarking
- Manguluka for tanh
- Vindaar for bugfixing
- Every participants in RFCs
- And you user of the library.